Breast cancer questions . What is cancer?
Before talking about breast cancer, will explain on short how cancer appears. Cancer is the result of uncontrolled and disorganized cells. Healthy cells are arranged in an orderly manner, each tissue having its own cellular structure. In all tissues, cells are constantly lost due to general wear and are replaced by a process of cell division. In normal tissues action of a cell is controlled, this dividing in two and creating two new cells identical to the original. If the body has sores, cell production rate automatically increases until healing has occurred, then slowly returns to normal. Cancer cells, however, divide and grow in an uncontrolled way – and thus continue till a treatment is applied. Meanwhile, their number increases until the cancer becomes visible. In addition to extremely rapid multiplication of cancer, cells are unable to organize themselves in an appropriate manner, and the mass of tissue that arises is not as a normal tissue. A mass of cancer cells is called the tumor. Cancerous cells develop from cells of the body and only one cell is sufficient for the development of a tumor. However, the transformation of a normal cell into a cancerous one is gradually, in several stages over several years. With the passage of each stage cell changes becoming more and becomes less sensitive to normal control mechanisms of the body. Cancers are classified according to the cell of origin. The tumor was formed first in an organ is called primary tumor. The blood who leaves the heart cells to carry oxygen and food throughout the body travels through the arteries. After he left to every cell oxygen and food, blood returns to the heart with waste and carbon dioxide from each cell. Blood returns to the heart through the veins. Cancer cells (abnormal cells) may be taken (by blood through the arteries and / or veins) in other organs and here they multiply and give other cancers (other tumors) that are called metastases or secondary tumors.
Who’s at risk for breast cancer?
A risk factor is always that which can be a cause for developing a disease. It may be an activity, such as smoking, diet, family history, or many other things. Different diseases, including cancers are based on different risk factors. Knowing your risk factors to any disease, you can help guide you in right action, including changing behaviors (habits) and which are clinically monitored for the disease. Any woman can develop breast cancer. However, the following risk factors may be cause a disease development. Risk factors that can not be changed are: gender- Breast cancer occurs about 100 times more in women than at men; age- a majority of cases occur after the age of 50 years; personal history of the disease; previous irradiation of the breast; family history and genetic factors: the existence of a close relative such as mother or sister with breast cancer is a risk factor- this includes a change in some genes such as BRCA1, BRCA2, and others; benign breast disease; previous breast biopsy -the tissue shows atypical hyperplasia; first menstrual period occurred earlier; early menopause later. Other common risks are: smoking; lack of pregnancy or first child after age 30 years; oral contraceptives; obesity and high-fat diet; physical inactivity; alcohol; long period combined with the use of postmenopausal estrogen and progesterone (HRT); excess of weight and obesity after menopause.
Breast Cancer Prevention:
It is said that breast cancer disease can not be prevented. At first glance there is room for intervention by correcting lifestyle. Although breast cancer is usually diagnosed later in life, studies show that it appears and develops over a whole life. Recently, it was found that the customs practiced in adolescence can significantly impact later in life the risk of breast cancer. In most cases, the first sign of breast cancer is a lump found by the women or physician. This lump is most commonly located in the upper part of the breast near the armpit. Other symptoms are nipple secretion and areola or nipple deformation (retraction). Sometimes breast cancer shows no sign. Not every lump is compulsory breast cancer. This may be a cyst, a premenstrual pain-related congestion, or a fibroadenoma, a common benign tumor. It is recommended that breast self-examination to be made monthly, preferably 7-8 days after the end of menstrual bleeding.
Breast cancer screening:
Clinical examination: the first stage of diagnosis -consists of questioning, palpation of the breast and axillary exploration nodes. Clinical examination allows detection of anomalies that suggest other required medical exams. Complementary examinations: mammography (radiological examination of the breast) allows detection of a tumor. Ultrasound bring complementary information related to the nature of this tumor. It may be associated with taking a few cells in the lesion (citopunction), which confirm or rule out the presence of cancer cells. If at this stage doubts persist regarding benignity or malignancy of the tumor, a biopsy is needed (sampling, and analysis of a fragment of breast tissue). After the diagnosis of breast cancer, it is possible to assess the degree of aggressiveness of the tumor. Severity factors of breast cancer are tumor growth rate (doubling the volume defined by the time required) lymph nodes invasion and eventually metastases.
This blog post is an educational resource only and does not replace a medical consultation with a doctor .
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